iLoc

This plugin allows the use of the iLoc locator with SeisComP.

Description

iLoc is a locator developed by István Bondár integrated into SeisComP by gempa GmbH 1. It is invoked by the wrapper plugin lociloc which is the interface between SeisComP and iLoc.

Background

iLoc is a locator tool for locating seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound sources based on phase picks. iLoc is based on the location algorithm developed by Bondár and McLaughlin, 2009 and implemented at the International Seismological Center, ISC 2 Bondár and Storchak, 2011 with numerous new features added Bondár et al., 2018. The stand-alone iLoc code can be downloaded from the IRIS SeisCode 3 software repository.

Among the major advantages of using iLoc is that it can

  • Use any phases with valid travel-time predictions;

  • Use seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound arrival time, slowness and azimuth observations in location;

  • Use travel-time predictions from a global 3D upper mantle velocity model;

  • Use a local 1D velocity model;

  • Account for the correlated travel-time prediction error structure due to unmodeled 3D velocity heterogeneities;

  • Check if the data has sufficient resolution to determine the hypocenter depth;

  • Identify ground truth (GT5) candidate events.

iLoc History

  • Originally developed for U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, today the standard at the International Seismological Centre (ISC) replacing previous routines

  • Open source, download website: https://seiscode.iris.washington.edu/projects/iloc

  • Integrated first in SeisComP3 in 2019

  • Basis of the EMSC crowd-source locator, CsLoc since 2019

  • EMSC standard as of 2022

iLoc in a Nutshell

  • Accounts for correlated travel-time prediction errors

  • Initial hypocenter guess from Neighbourhood Algorithm search

  • Linearised inversion using a priori estimate of the full data covariance matrix Attempts for free-depth solution only if there is depth resolution

  • Default depth is derived from historical seismicity

  • Seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound observations

  • Arrival time, slowness and azimuth measurements

  • Uses most ak135 or iasp91 Earth model phases in locating

  • Integrated RSTT travel-time predictions

  • RSTT is default for Pn/Sn and Pg/Lg

  • Local velocity model and local phase TT predictions for Pg/Sg/Lg, Pb/Sb, Pn/Sn.

iLoc Algorithms

This section describes some of the principles. The full description of the applied algorithms can be found in the iLoc documentation provided along with the package on the IRIS SeisCode 3 website.

Neighbourhood algorithm

Linearized inversion algorithms are quite sensitive to the initial guess. In order to find an initial hypocentre guess for the linearized inversion the Neigbourhood Algorithm Sambridge, 1999; Sambridge and Kennett, 2001; Kennett, 2006 is performed around the starting hypocentre if iLoc.profile.$name.DoGridSearch is active.

During the NA search, we identify the phases with respect to each trial hypocentre and calculate the misfit of the trial hypocentre. The misfit is defined as the sum of the iLoc.profile.$name.NAlpNorm residual and a penalty factor that penalizes against freakish local minima provided by just a few phases. In the first iteration iLoc.profile.$name.NAinitialSample hypocenter hypotheses are tested, while the subsequent iterations consider the best iLoc.profile.$name.NAcells solutions and resample the search space around them with iLoc.profile.$name.NAnextSample hypocenter hypotheses. The solution with the lowest misfit after iLoc.profile.$name.NAiterMax iteration is taken as the initial hypocenter for the linearized least squares inversion.

A grid search can be performed to obtain a better initial hypocenter guess. The search is performed around the starting hypocenter. For a very exhaustive search one can increase iLoc.profile.$name.NAinitialSample, iLoc.profile.$name.NAnextSample and iLoc.profile.$name.NAcells values. Note that the maximum value for iLoc.profile.$name.NAinitialSample is around 3500 before hitting memory limits.

An exhaustive search will considerably slow iLoc down, especially when RSTT predictions are enabled (iLoc.profile.$name.UseRSTT, iLoc.profile.$name.UseRSTTPnSn, iLoc.profile.$name.UseRSTTPgLg).

Depth resolution

Depth resolution can be provided by a local network, depth phases, core reflections and to a lesser extent near-regional secondary phases. iLoc attempts for a free-depth solution if the set of :term:arrivals meets at least one of the following conditions:

  • Number of pairs of defining P and depth phases \le iLoc.profile.$name.MinDepthPhases

  • Number of pairs of defining P and core phases \le iLoc.profile.$name.MinCorePhases

  • Number of pairs of defining P and S phases \le iLoc.profile.$name.MinSPpairs within a regional distance of iLoc.profile.$name.MaxLocalDistDeg degree

  • Number of defining P phases \le iLoc.profile.$name.MinLocalStations within a local distance of iLoc.profile.$name.MinLocalStations degree.

If there is insufficient depth resolution provided by the data, or the depth uncertainty for a free-depth solution exceeds a threshold, the hypocentre depth is set to the depth from the default depth grid if a grid point for the epicentre location exists; otherwise it is set to a depth Bolton et al., 2006 assigned to the corresponding Flinn-Engdahl Young et al., 1996 geographic region. The default depth grid Bondár and Storchak, 2011 is defined on a 0.5º x 0.5º grid as the median of all depths in the cell, provided that there were at least five events in the cell, and the 75–25 percent quartile range was less than 100 km. The latter constraint is imposed to avoid regions with both shallow and deep seismicity. Anthropogenic events are fixed to the surface. Finally, the user can fix the depth to the initial depth.

iLoc reports back how the depth was determined in the FixedDepthType parameter:

  • 0 - free depth solution

  • 1 - airquake/deepquake, depth fixed to surface/MaxHypocenterDepth

  • 2 - depth fixed to depth reported by an agency (not used in SeisComP)

  • 3 - depth fixed to depth-phase depth

  • 4 - anthropogenic event, depth fixed to surface

  • 5 - depth fixed to default depth grid depth

  • 6 - no default depth grid point exists, fixed to median reported depth

  • 7 - no default depth grid point exists, fixed to GRN-dependent depth

  • 8 - depth fixed by user provided value

Linearized inversion

Once the Neighbourhood search get close to the global optimum, iloc switches to an iterative linearized least-squares inversion of travel-time, azimuth and slowness observations Bondár and McLaughlin, 2009; Bondár and Storchak, 2011 to obtain the final solution for the hypocenter.

The Paige and Saunders, 1982 convergence test is applied after every iteration. Once a convergent solution is obtained, the location uncertainty is defined by the a posteriori model covariance matrix. The model covariance matrix yields the four-dimensional error ellipsoid whose projections provide the two-dimensional error ellipse and one-dimensional errors for depth and origin time. These uncertainties are scaled to the 90% confidence level Jordan and Sverdrup, 1981.

The final hypocentre is tested against the Bondár and McLaughlin, 2009 ground truth selection criteria, and it is reported as a GT5candidate if the solution meets the GT5 criteria.

Some important parameters are:

  • iLoc.profile.$name.SigmaThreshold: Residuals that exceed abs(Sigmathreshold * PriorMeasError) are made non-defining.

  • iLoc.profile.$name.MinNdefPhases: Minimum number of observations required to attempt for a solution.

If the number of defining arrival times exceed iLoc.profile.$name.MinNdefPhases, then slowness observations will not be used in the location.

Integration into SeisComP

  • Integration of iLoc into SeisComP is provided by a library of routines.

  • SeisComP modules call iLoc routines by passing the objects via the plugin lociloc installed in @DATADIR@/plugins/lociloc.so.

  • iLoc returns objects to SeisComP for integration.

  • The iLoc implementation in SeisComP retains all original iLoc functionalities.

Velocity Models

iLoc ships with the global models iasp91 and ak135 as well as with regional seismic travel-time tables, RSTT, which, if activated by configuration, replaces the global models in areas where they are defined.

Global models

The global models iasp91 and ak135 and RSTT are available by default without further configuration.

RSTT

RSTT are available in @DATADIR@/iloc/RSTTmodels/pdu202009Du.geotess. Custom RSTT can be integrated into iLoc and provided to SeisComP. For adding custom RSTT to iLoc read the original iLoc documentation from the IRIS SeisCode 3 software repository.

The usage of RSTT is controlled per iLoc profile by global configuration parameters

  • iLoc.profile.$name.UseRSTT

  • iLoc.profile.$name.UseRSTTPnSn

  • iLoc.profile.$name.UseRSTTPgLg

Local velocity models

Custom local velocity models can be provided by a file in @DATADIR@/iloc/localmodels. Example file @DATADIR@/iloc/localmodels/test.localmodel.dat:

#
# test
#
# number of layers
4
     0.000    5.8000    3.4600 x
    20.000    6.5000    3.8500 CONRAD
    45.000    8.0400    4.4800 MOHO
    77.500    8.0400    4.4800 x

Once added, the velocity can be configured in SeisComP as set out in section Setup.

Elevation Correction

iLoc considers station elevation. It calculates the elevation correction, elevationCorrection, for a station as

elevationCorrection = \frac{\sqrt{1 - (surfVel * p)^2} * elev}{surfVel}

where

  • elev: elevation of the station

  • p: the ray parameter (horizontal slowness)

  • surfVel: layer P or S velocity of at the surface depending on the last lag of the phase name.

Note

iLoc does not allow airquakes or source locations above datum (0 km). If the depth of an origin becomes negative, iLoc fixes the depth to 0 km and the depth type of the origin will be “operator assigned”.

Setup

  1. Add the plugin lociloc to the global configuration, e.g. in @SYSTEMCONFIGDIR@/global.cfg:

    plugins = ${plugins}, lociloc
    
  2. Download iLoc from the iLoc website, extract the travel-time tables and model files. Then, install the required files and directories in @DATADIR@/iloc, e.g.:

    mkdir $SEISCOMP_ROOT/share/iloc
    wget -O /tmp/iLocAuxDir.tgz "http://iloc.geochem.hu/data/iLocAuxDir.tgz"
    tar xvf /tmp/iLocAuxDir.tgz -C /tmp/
    cp -r /tmp/iLocAuxDir $SEISCOMP_ROOT/share/iloc/auxdata
    

    Note

  3. Add and configure iLoc profiles for the velocity models. The global models iasp91 and ak135 are considered by default with default configuration parameters. Create new profiles in oder to adjust their configuration parameters:

    • iLoc.profile.$name.globalModel: The name of the global model, e.g. iasp91 or ak135.

    • Consider the RSTT parameters.

    • iLoc.profile.$name.LocalVmodel: The name of the file containing the local velocity model.

    • iLoc.profile.$name.DoNotRenamePhases: Renaming seismic phases automatically impacts the usability of the origins with other locators and locator profiles. Activate the parameter to avoid phase renaming.

    • Consider the remaining parameters.

    Note

    Creating the profiles allows using the same global velocity model along with different local models or RSTT settings in separate profiles.

  4. Test the locator using scolv or configure with screloc or other locator modules.

Interactive Usage

Once the lociloc plugin is configured, the iLoc locator can be selected in scolv:

../_images/scolv-iloc-locator.png

Select iLoc locator

along with a profile:

../_images/scolv-iloc-profile.png

Select iLoc profile

The settings for iLoc can be adjusted by pressing the wrench button next to the locator selection combo box

../_images/scolv-iloc-change.png

Start the settings dialog

which opens the iLoc settings dialog:

../_images/scolv-iloc-settings.png

Adjust the settings and click OK to confirm

Warning

By default, automatic phase renaming by iLoc is active. The renaming may change the phase names, e.g. from P to Pn.

Renaming seismic phases automatically will later impact the usability of the new origins with other locators and locator profiles. Deactivate DoNotRenamePhases to avoid phase renaming.

However, when deactivating, iLoc may not provide results if the initial phases do not exist in the phase table for the given source depth and epicentral distance. Example: For great source depth and small epicentral distance, the first arrival phase is p or Pn and not P but SeisComP provides P.

After relocating, the iLoc locator and the selected profile are shown in the scolv Location tab as Method and Earth model, respectively:

../_images/scolv-iloc-info.png

Information in scolv Locator tab

References

1

https://www.gempa.de

2

http://www.isc.ac.uk

3(1,2,3)

https://seiscode.iris.washington.edu/projects/iloc

  1. Bolton, M.K., D.A. Storchak, and J. Harris, 2006, Updating default depth in the ISC bulletin, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 158, 27-45.

  2. Bondár, I., K. McLaughlin and H. Israelsson, Improved event location uncertainty estimates, Science Applications International Corp., Final Report, AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2008-1074, 2008.

  3. Bondár, I. and K. McLaughlin, Seismic location bias and uncertainty in the presence of correlated and non-Gaussian travel-time errors, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 99, 172-193, DOI:10.1785/0120080922, 2009.

  4. Bondár, I. and K. McLaughlin, 2009, A new ground truth data set for seismic studies, Seism. Res. Let., 80, 465-472.

  5. Bondár, I., and D. Storchak, Improved location procedures at the International Seismological Centre, Geophys. J. Int., 186, 1220-1244, DOI:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05107.x, 2011.

  6. Bondár, I., E.R. Engdahl, A. Villasenor, J.Harris and D. Storchak, ISC-GEM: Global instrumental earthquake catalogue (1900-2009), II. Location and seismicity patterns, Phys. Earth. Planet. Int., DOI: 10.1016/j.pepi.2014.06.002, 239, 2-13, 2015.

  7. Bondár, I., P. Mónus, Cs. Czanik, M. Kiszely, Z. Gráczer, Z. Wéber, and the AlpArrayWorking Group, Relocation of Seismicity in the Pannonian Basin Using a Global 3D Velocity Model, Seism. Res. Let., 89, 2284-2293, DOI:10.1785/0220180143, 2018.

  8. Buland, R. and C.H. Chapman, 1983. The computation of seismic travel times, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 73, 1271-1302.

  9. Dziewonski, A.M. and F. Gilbert, 1976, The effect of small, aspherical perturbations on travel times and a re-examination of the correction for ellipticity, Geophys., J. R. Astr. Soc., 44, 7-17.

  10. Engdahl, E.R., R. van der Hilst, and R. Buland, 1998. Global teleseismic earthquake relocation with improved travel times and procedures for depth determination, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 88, 722-743.

  11. Jordan T.H. and K.A. Sverdrup, 1981, Teleseismic location techniques and their application to earthquake clusters in the South-Central Pacific, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 71, 1105-1130.

  12. Kennett, B. and Engdahl, E.R., 1991. Travel times for global earthquake location and phase identification, Geophys. J. Int., 105, 429–465.

  13. Kennett, B.L.N., E.R. Engdahl, and R. Buland, 1995. Constraints on seismic velocities in the Earth from traveltimes, Geophys. J. Int., 122, 108-124.

  14. Kennett, B.L.N. and O. Gudmundsson, 1996, Ellipticity corrections for seismic phases, Geophys. J. Int., 127, 40-48.

  15. Myers, S.C, M.L. Begnaud, S. Ballard, M.E. Pasyanos, W.S. Phillips, A.L. Ramirez, M.S. Antolik, K.D. Hutchenson, J. Dwyer, C. A. Rowe, and G. S. Wagner, 2010, A crust and upper mantle model of Eurasia and North Africa for Pn travel time calculation, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 100, 640-656.

  16. Paige, C. and M. Saunders, 1982, LSQR: An Algorithm for Sparse Linear Equations and Sparse Least Squares, ACM Trans. Math. Soft., 8, 43-71.

  17. Sambridge, M., 1999, Geophysical inversion with a neighbourhood algorithm. I. Searching the parameter space, Geophys. J. Int., 138, 479-494.

  18. Sambridge, M. and B.L.N. Kennett, 2001, Seismic event location: non-linear inversion using a neighbourhood algorithm, Pageoph, 158, 241-257.

  19. Weber, B., Bondár, I., Roessler, D., Becker, J., SeisComP3 iLoc Integration Applied to Array Processing, SnT conference, Abstract: T3.5-P54, Vienna / Austria, 2019, abstract: T3.5-P54

  20. Young, J.B., B.W. Presgrave, H. Aichele, D.A. Wiens and E.A. Flinn, 1996. The Flinn-Engdahl regionalization scheme: the 1995 revision, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 96, 223-297.

Configuration

Note

iLoc.* Locator parameters: iLoc

iLoc.profiles

Type: list:string

iLoc profile name. Multiples names may be set separated by comma. Each profile can have different velocity or parameters. Default is iasp91,ak135.

Note

iLoc.profile.* Profiles containing the specific locator parameters. For the global models, iasp91 and ak135, profiles are automatically considered with defaults. To adjust the profile parameters the corresponding profile must be created.

Note

iLoc.profile.$name.* $name is a placeholder for the name to be used and needs to be added to iLoc.profiles to become active.

iLoc.profiles = a,b
iLoc.profile.a.value1 = ...
iLoc.profile.b.value1 = ...
# c is not active because it has not been added
# to the list of iLoc.profiles
iLoc.profile.c.value1 = ...
iLoc.profile.\$name.Verbose

Type: boolean

Default is true.

iLoc.profile.\$name.globalModel

Type: string

Name of globally applied velocity model into which RSTT or the local model is integrated. If unset, the name of the profile is considered instead.

iLoc.profile.\$name.UseRSTT

Type: boolean

Use regional seismic travel-time tables Default is false.

iLoc.profile.\$name.UseRSTTPnSn

Type: boolean

Use regional seismic travel-time tables for Pn and Sn Default is true.

iLoc.profile.\$name.UseRSTTPgLg

Type: boolean

Use regional seismic travel-time tables for Pg and Lg Default is true.

iLoc.profile.\$name.LocalVmodel

Type: string

Full path to a file containing the local velocity model. Requires: UseLocalTT = true. Empty string or unset disables using a local model in this profile.

Example:

@DATADIR@/iloc/localmodels/model.localmodel.dat.

iLoc.profile.\$name.DoGridSearch

Type: boolean

Perform neighbourhood algorithm Default is true.

iLoc.profile.\$name.NAsearchRadius

Type: float

Unit: deg

Neighbourhood Algorithm: Search radius around initial epicentre Default is 5.

iLoc.profile.\$name.NAsearchDepth

Type: float

Unit: km

Neighbourhood Algorithm: Search radius around initial depth Default is 300.

iLoc.profile.\$name.NAsearchOT

Type: float

Unit: s

Neighbourhood Algorithm: Search radius around initial origin time Default is 30.

iLoc.profile.\$name.NAlpNorm

Type: float

Neighbourhood Algorithm: p-value for norm to compute misfit [1,2] Default is 1.

iLoc.profile.\$name.NAiterMax

Type: integer

Neighbourhood Algorithm: Maximum number of iterations Default is 5.

iLoc.profile.\$name.NAcells

Type: integer

Neighbourhood Algorithm: Number of cells to be resampled at each iteration Default is 25.

iLoc.profile.\$name.NAinitialSample

Type: integer

Neighbourhood Algorithm: Size of initial sample Default is 1000.

iLoc.profile.\$name.NAnextSample

Type: integer

Neighbourhood Algorithm: Size of subsequent samples Default is 100.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MinDepthPhases

Type: integer

Depth resolution: Minimum number of depth phases for depdp Default is 3.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MaxLocalDistDeg

Type: float

Unit: deg

Depth resolution: Maximum local distance Default is 0.2.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MinLocalStations

Type: integer

Depth resolution: Minimum number of local defining stations Default is 1.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MaxSPDistDeg

Type: float

Unit: deg

Depth resolution: Maximum distance for using S-P travel-time differences. Default is 2.0.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MinSPpairs

Type: integer

Depth resolution: Minimum number of defining S-P phase pairs Default is 3.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MinCorePhases

Type: integer

Depth resolution: Minimum number of defining core reflection phases Default is 3.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MaxShallowDepthError

Type: float

Unit: km

Depth resolution: Maximum depth error for crustal free-depth Default is 30.0.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MaxDeepDepthError

Type: float

Unit: km

Depth resolution: Maximum depth error for deep free-depth Default is 60.0.

iLoc.profile.\$name.DoCorrelatedErrors

Type: boolean

Linearized inversion: Account for correlated errors Default is true.

iLoc.profile.\$name.SigmaThreshold

Type: float

Unit: s

Linearized inversion: Used to exclude big residuals from solution Default is 6.0.

iLoc.profile.\$name.AllowDamping

Type: boolean

Linearized inversion: Allow damping of model vector Default is true.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MinIterations

Type: integer

Linearized inversion: Minimum number of iterations Default is 4.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MaxIterations

Type: integer

Linearized inversion: Maximum number of iterations Default is 20.

iLoc.profile.\$name.MinNdefPhases

Type: integer

Linearized inversion: Minimum number of defining phases Default is 4.

iLoc.profile.\$name.DoNotRenamePhases

Type: boolean

Linearized inversion: Do not rename phases. Deactivating allows to rename the phases automatically for this profile. Default is false.